Tag Archives: Gandhi

Thanksgiving Service for Lord Attenborough – A Personal View by John Rowley 22nd March 2015

Richard Attenborough at Kingsley Hall 1996

Richard Attenborough at Kingsley Hall 1996

Poppy, Judith and I arrived in The Abbey Forecourt at 11am. It was already seething with people laughing and smiling and a long queue snaking through security. William Rhind was there and took our spare ticket for Mark Hoda. Martin Polden was already in the queue and Diana Schumacher had taken her seat right in the front row at the Crossing [where the nave intersects the transept].

I am on two missions. The first is to spot members of the theatrical elite and, if the moment occurs, get into a conversation. Poppy has her card. Didn’t happen then but did later. My second was to ask as many as I politely could, what do you think of Trevor Griffith’s screen play for “Tom Paine”? Do you think the funds could be raised now?” This was Richard’s last but sadly not completed project. Michael Grade reckons he spent more time on this than he did on “Gandhi”. The script has been universally praised [including Tom Stoppard, David Puttnam and Kurt Vonnegut]. I have since learned that there are now two films due on Tom Paine: one is in the final stages of production in Hollywood and the other, to be directed by Dick Fontaine, is being offered to potential funders. Let’s hope both prove to be the urgently needed reminder of the power of democracy.

You are transformed the moment you walk through The Abbey’s portal. You are suddenly enveloped in a sacred space. Its stupendous vault almost sucks your eyes up, the grace of the falling ribs drawing them down, down, down the elegant, heaven-reaching arcade of columns and slim sunlit windows to the polished nave stones beneath your feet. Just above the heads of those in front, you glimpse the glistening gold of the altar, far away and tiny through the sparkling gold rood screen. You begin your approach to the sacred centre; the holiest of the holy which explains all to believers. The quiet murmurings around you are respectful of this, the fleeting eye contacts are open, welcoming and bonding, dress codes and uniforms of the humblest best.

You follow the others slowly down the aisle, scanning the hundreds of faces on either side, many already gazing at you. Do I recognise any? Not until Michael Caine sitting front row right in the transept. Diana must have been on the left because my eyes were glued on him! The lives you can see in that face in seconds…

‘Only connect’ and here you can. ‘The Times’ published a complete list the next day.

We three were sat some 20 rows behind them and we had the most extraordinary encounters. First of all, there was William Blake looking right at us, the light on the bronze making him scowl and thoughtful at the same time. I was a Trustee of The Blake Society for a few years. In 1791, Tom Paine followed William Blake’s advice to give the manuscript of “The Rights of Man” to the brave printer, J S Jordan, and to then quickly leave for Paris where he was welcomed into the ‘inner circle’.

A laugh behind me made me turn and was happily included. He turns out to be Lord Watson, previously Financial Correspondent for the BBC but, for decades, Richard’s next door neighbour in Richmond.

Then Greg Dyke sat down next to Judith and we four had a great little chat. He said he had seriously considered making the film when he was at the BBC and would still love to see it made.

At 11:40, the organ begins to play excerpts from Bach, Handel, Howells, Mendelssohn, Elgar and Vaughan Williams. I turn to my left and meet Mary Connolly. Believe this: she turns out to be Sussex University’s Special Projects director responsible for The Attenborough Centre which is opening in September! I had no idea of this. She offered to look at my photos of Richard – “It’s so difficult to find unpublished ones” – and the proposal I made to Richard for a Peace Studies Institute. Looks like another re-write coming up.

On the dot of noon of this St Patrick’s Day, SILENCE descends. We are all abruptly totally focused, egos quickly draining away. The Collegiate Procession, in their magnificence, ‘moves to places in Quire and Sacrarium’. George Fenton’s “Shadowlands” theme is played on trumpet and organ. After the Bidding, we sang Bunyan’s “He who would valiant be..”. Now I am involved, body and soul.

David Attenborough then read Richard’s Maiden Speech [22-11-94]. I give it to you now:

“I have it on the best authority – from a not too distant relative – that we are related to apes. But it is surely not only the ability to stand on our hind legs that sets us so singularly apart from the animal kingdom. The crucial difference must lie in what we call ‘soul’ and creativity.

From the very earliest of times, the arts have been an instinctive essential of our humanity. They are a miraculous sleight of hand which reveals the truth; and a glorious passport to greater understanding between the peoples of the world. The arts not only enrich our lives but also grant us the opportunity to challenge accepted practices and assumptions. They give us a means of protest against that which we believe unjust; a voice to condemn the brute and the bully; a brief to advocate the cause of human dignity and self-respect; a rich and varied language through which we can express our national identity.

Today, as a nation, we face daunting problems – problems which are obliging us to examine the very fabric of our society. And the role of the arts in healing a nation divided, a nation in which too many lack work, lack self-esteem, lack belief and direction, cannot be over-estimated.

The arts are not a luxury. They are as crucial to our well-being, to our very existence, as eating and breathing. Access to them should not be restricted to a privileged few. Nor are they the playground of the intelligentsia. The arts are for everyone – and failure to include everyone diminishes us all.”

Wow! Poppy shakes a metaphorical fist in total agreement, whispering “Yes!”.

Penelope Wilton followed with verses from St John [I 4:7-9, 11-12, 18, 20]:

“Beloved, let us love one another: for love is of God; and every one that loveth is born of God, and knoweth God. He that loveth not knoweth not God; for Gos is love. In the was manifested the love of God toward us, because that God sent his only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through him. Beloved, if God so loved us, we ought also to love one another. No man hath seen God at any time. If we love one another, God dwelleth in us, and his love is perfected in us. There is no fear in love; but perfect love casteth out fear: because fear hath torment. He that feareth is not made perfect in love. We love him, because he first loved us. If a man say, I love God, and hateth his brother, he is a liar: for he that loveth not his brother whom he has seen, how can he love God whom he hath not seen?”

After the Choir had sung the spiritual “Steal Away”, St Matthew 5: 1-10 was read by the apparently gorgeous, but out of sight, Tom Hiddlestone. We then sang Vaughan Williams’ hymn “Come down, O Love divine…” and Ben Kingsley and Geraldine James mounted the two pulpits, alternating with each other. Sir Ben began, but not in voice, to read:

Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.
Be the change you wish to see in the world.
It has always been a mystery to me how men can feel themselves honoured by the humiliation of their fellow beings.
What difference does it make to the dead, the orphans and the homeless, whether mad destruction is wrought in the name of totalitarianism or in the holy name of liberty and democracy?
There are many causes I would die for. Not one I would kill for. An eye for an eye turns the whole world blind.
Poverty is the worst form of violence.
Of all the evils for which man has made himself responsible, none is so degrading, so shocking or so brutal, as his abuse of the better half of humanity: the female sex.
Terrorism is a weapon not of the strong but of the weak.
Civilisation is the encouragement of differences.
The day the power of love overrules the love of power, the world will know peace.
When I despair, I remember that all through history the way of truth and love have always
won. There have been tyrants and murderers and, for a time, they can seem invincible but, in
the end, they always fall. Think of it – always.
There are no goodbyes.
Wherever you’ll be, you’ll be in my heart.

This led seamlessly into a heavenly sound that seemed to capture the whole building in its palm. Unnati Dasgupta sang from the Organ Loft:

Raghupati Raghava Raja Ram
Patita Pavana Sita Ram
Sita Ram jaya Sita Ram
Bhaja Pyare tu Sita Ram
Ishawara Allah tero naam
Saab ko Sanamati De Bhagavan.

From Shri Nama Ramayanam
Vishnu Digambar Paluskar [1872 – 1931]
Based on a mantra by Ramdas [1608 – 1681]
Sung by Gandhi and his followers on the Salt March to Dandi.

Stunning!

Lord Puttnam delivered The Address. People all around me laughed at his anecdotes of Richard but, unfortunately, I couldn’t hear any of the punch lines. I shall ask him for a copy. Judith writes: “A moving address by David Puttnam reminded us how Dickie, throughout his life and work, brought human virtues of courage, compassion, a lifelong commitment to human rights and reaching out rather than closing in to all peoples”.

He was immediately followed by the voice of Richard himself. Tears leapt to my eyes and I instinctively clutched my heart – what a wuss! He was reading Shakespeare’s Sonnet 17. You know: “Who will believe my verse in time to come…”

The silence that followed was palpable. He was here again and then he was gone, our thanksgiving finally bringing it home. But I am still here but not for that long. We felt our fleeting mortality in Richard’s.

To rouse us back up from our gloom, they gave us Elgar’s “Nimrod”, to which the Choir sang The Anthem:

“Lux aeterna luceat eis Domine cum sanctis tuis in aeternum: quia pius es.
Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine; et lux perpetua luceat eis.
Cum sanctis tuis in aeternum quia pius es.”

No wonder Melvyn Bragg chose John Wycliffe, alongside John Ball and Tom Paine, as one of his great British heroes in his BBC television series.

How about Blake next, Melvyn? Which allows me to segue into the Finale – which was, of course, “Jerusalem”. Singing your heart out, your Soul soars again and wants to ascend yet further.

The three of us and, I’m sure nearly everybody else, were in mild, post-awe shock, euphoric as the hour comes to an end. Was it really that short? The beauty of the music, the words, the architecture, the people are still vibrating within you as you shuffle towards the sun-lit portal back into the so-called real world. It is as if you are gliding. With heightened awareness, you see only Brothers and Sisters around you, a whole community swimming in a sea of smiles and joy. The organisers, the speakers, the performers – people – created this for him, for us and for themselves. We had all participated and made it so. Thank you. “Human beings – they can really be something, can’t they?”

Together, we had honoured rightly this great man and done so in one of our most sacred spaces and the one closest to the most holy place of participative democracy on the planet. When will they bronze his bust? For this man was a saint by any measure. Thousands loved him personally, millions felt their well-being enhanced by his life, love and generosity, many changing themselves because of what he did and became. Bless you, my Lord.

For me, he achieved satyagraha. But, then, what do I know about that?

John Rowley is a Trustee and Executive Member of the Gandhi Foundation.

Mahatma Gandhi Statue Unveiled in Parliament Square

Historic Statue of Mahatma Gandhi Unveiled in Parliament Square

Photo: Crown copyright Photographer: Arron Hoare https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/

Photo: Crown copyright
Photographer: Arron Hoare
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/

 

Political leaders led by Prime Minister David Cameron and Indian Finance Minister Arun Jaitley were joined by Mahatma Gandhi’s grandson Gopalkrishna Gandhi and Bollywood actor Amitabh Bachchan at the unveiling ceremony of the bronze statue of Mahatma Gandhi in Parliament Square. The statue will stand alongside Nelson Mandela and Winston Churchill.

You can read the speeches of Gopalkrishna Gandhi and PM David Cameron by clicking on the links below:

Gopalkrishna Gandhi’s speech

PM David Cameron’s speech

Inspired by Gandhi 2015 – An International Writing Competition

gandhi book2

An International Writing Competition organised by Sampad
– South Asian Arts Development

“Be the change that you wish to see in the world”
~ Mahatma Gandhi ~

Mahatma Gandhi is a towering figure in history whose philosophy of non-violence, passion for equality and independence and socio-political intelligence continues to be an inspiration for many leaders.

Sampad’s latest international writing competition provides an opportunity for aspiring writers to connect with this immensely philosophical and influential thinker and leader, and express their own response through inspired writing.

Key motivations for delivering this project:

  • Stimulate research into Gandhi’s life and philosophy
  • Motivate young and old to express themselves through creative writing
  • Inform new and uninformed generations about this amazing personality
  • Engage with wide audiences and participants across the globe as an on-line project

The publication which will be produced at the end of the competition will be a valuable educational tool and source of inspiration for young people in schools and colleges and beyond, helping to keep Gandhi’s message alive for future generations.

More details of how to enter the competition can be found at:
http://www.sampad.org.uk/special-projects/inspired-by/gandhi/

The Gandhi Foundation Summer Gathering 2015

The Gandhi Foundation Summer Gathering 2015

Gandhian Values in the Digital Age

sg 2014

Saturday 25th July to Saturday 1st August 2015

at The Abbey, Sutton Courtenay, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 4AF

The Gandhi Foundation Summer Gathering 2015 will take as it’s focus Gandhian Values in the Digital, in a week of exploring community, nonviolence and creativity through sharing.

The Gandhi Foundation Summer Gathering 2011

The Gandhi Foundation Summer Gathering 2011

In the morning sessions we shall be looking at the dangers and opportunities of our increasing access to information technology.

There will be a variety of practical activities as well as walks, discussions etc.

Prices for the week range from £150 to £260 depending on the accommodation
– children and full-time students come at half price.

Come for the week, a few days or just a day. We look forward to seeing you.

For further information about the Summer Gathering 2015 and bookings contact: william@gandhifoundation.org

For information about The Abbey at Sutton Courtenay click here

For a review of the 2013 Summer Gathering click here

Understanding the Ambedkar – Gandhi Debate By Rajmohan Gandhi

Dr B R Ambedkar in 1951

Dr B R Ambedkar in 1951

In 1936, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was invited to deliver a lecture in Lahore – then very much part of India – by a Hindu group opposed to untouchability. When the group saw an advance text of the lecture, which was entitled Annihilation of Caste, they cancelled the invitation because towards the lecture’s end, the author had declared his intention of leaving the Hindu fold. In a riposte to the cancellation, Dr. Ambedkar published Annihilation of Caste. Its contents elicited an immediate comment from Gandhi in his journal, Harijan, to which Ambedkar issued a rejoinder.

A major text from India’s recent history, Annihilation of Caste has been republished many times and has been translated into several languages, often with the Ambedkar–Gandhi exchange added to the main text. In March 2014, a new edition was published in Delhi by Navayana. In this new edition, Annihilation of Caste is preceded by a 153-page text by Arundhati Roy, entitled ‘The Doctor and the Saint’, which is presented as an introduction to Ambedkar’s classic ‘undelivered’ lecture.

This little book is a response to Arundhati Roy’s ‘The Doctor and the Saint’. However, it also bears an indirect connection to the historic debate between Ambedkar and Gandhi, which took place during a period well removed from our times. While Gandhi’s assassination occurred nearly seven decades into the past, Ambedkar died in 1956, almost six decades ago.

The two were involved in a positive, if impersonal, relationship during the 1920s. Though they did not meet each other in this period, Ambedkar appreciated Gandhi’s concern for the plight of Dalits, and he also welcomed the method of satyagraha that Gandhi had introduced. However, the 1930s saw sharp, and from a historian’s standpoint revealing, exchanges between the two.

The exchanges help our understanding not only of two powerful individuals in history, but also of continuing flaws in Indian society and the tension in the first half of the twentieth century between the goals of national independence and social justice.

To read the full article click here: Independence and Social Justice – Jan 2015

2014 UCL Lancet Lecture by Arundhati Roy – The Half-Life of Caste: The ill-health of a nation

Arundhati Roy giving the 2014 UCL Lecture. image © UCL

Arundhati Roy giving the 2014 UCL Lancet Lecture.  Image © UCL

The 2014 UCL Lancet Lecture was given by Arundhati Roy – The Half-Life of Caste: The ill-health of a nation.

The UCL video of the lecture can be viewed here:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nawWZYhUWBA&list=PL794B0AE51832BE14

Arundhati Roy, acclaimed novelist and political activist, won the 1997 Booker Prize for Fiction with her novel The God of Small Things. She has published several collections of political essays on issues ranging from large dams and nuclear weapons to the corporatisation and privatisation of India’s New Economy.

 

‘Goddess of big things?’ A rejoinder to Arundhati Roy’s 2014 lectures in London that offered a critique of Mahatma Gandhi by Narinder Kapur

Arundhati Roy, the celebrated author and Booker Prize winner, recently gave two talks in London on the subject of caste, one at University College London (UCL), and the other a few days later at the Queen Elizabeth Hall in the South Bank Centre, London. I presume the two talks were very similar, but the one at UCL appears available for viewing, and I did not attend either talk in person.

As Professor Michael Arthur, the UCL Provost, outlined in his Introduction to the Lancet Lecture given by Arundhati Roy at UCL on November 20, 2104 [1], the Lancet Lecture series has been delivered by an impressive feast of minds, including two Nobel Laureates – the psychologist Daniel Kahneman and the economist, Amartya Sen. It was an imaginative and bold decision to invite Arundhati Roy to deliver this year’s lecture, which was both stimulating and controversial, in line with the reputation which Ms Roy has gleaned over the years.

Her lecture was entitled, The half-life of caste: The ill-health of a nation. However, while caste was a key theme of the lecture, much of it was also taken up by a rather savage critique of Mahatma Gandhi. Her criticisms were so strident, and so divergent from established views of Gandhi, that it is only fair that some form of rejoinder is offered. A rejoinder of Ms Roy’s general thesis, which actually takes the form of a 153-page Introduction to a new 2014 edition of the 1936 book, Annihilation of Caste written by Dr B R Ambedkar, has already been written by the grandson of Mahatma Gandhi, Raj Mohan Gandhi (http://www.rajmohangandhi.com/ambedkargandhi-debate-reply-arundhati-roy).

Ms Roy’s critique of Gandhi comes at the same time that the British government has decided to erect a statue of Gandhi in Parliament Square, and I suspect Ms Roy will not be donating any royalties from her books towards the Gandhi statue appeal (www.gandhistatue.org)! Some of the questioners who raised queries after the lecture prefaced their question by ‘I am a fan of yours’. Well, I am a fan of both Ms Roy and Gandhi, and so Ms Roy has managed to tear me apart, something that hitherto up to now only my children have succeeded in doing! I am a long-standing member of the Gandhi Foundation and have written a number of articles about Gandhi [2-4]. My interest in Gandhi started when I was researching Gandhi and Indian history for my book, The Irish Raj [5]. Sitting in the Oxford South Asia library, and having Gandhi’s volumes of writings in front of me, was a daunting experience while I was researching for the book.

Arundhati Roy has rightly achieved international acclaim for her Booker Prize novel, The God of Small Things. But she seems to have acquired a messianic appeal, akin to that of Mother Teresa, and – dare I say it – Mahatma Gandhi. In the eyes of many people, especially in the west, she can do no evil and say no evil. She appears to have taken on the charisma of ‘Goddess of Big Things’, pronouncing on issues that include nuclear weapons, terrorism and dams. She is seen as a manly figure in a world where we need a strong personality to stand up to male chauvinist pigs. However, as her Wikipedia entry shows [6], she is also a controversial figure, and she has been criticised by many in India for some of her statements and actions. She has also been criticised by the very people, Dalits, whose rights she claims to be defending and upholding. [7]

I do not intend to focus on Ms Roy’s pronouncements on caste nor on what she states were statements and views of Gandhi or Ambedkar in respect of caste. Caste systems lack logic and are relics of a bygone age, though a similar argument might be made of royalty! I wish instead to critique at a more general level the content of her lecture.

Ms Roy made it quite clear in her lecture that she considered Gandhi quite undeserving of the respect and accolades that he has been given, going so far as to criticise the Oscar-winning film on Gandhi by Sir Richard Attenborough. We are then to assume that those who got Gandhi all wrong include not only Sir Richard Attenborough but also Einstein, Martin Luther King, Nelson Mandela and current leading academic figures such as Professor Howard Gardner of Harvard and Professor Lord Bikhu Parekh of London. Even those who disagree with Gandhi on certain issues have recognized his major, outstanding contributions to political thinking, such as a previous Lancet Lecturer, the Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen. In its recent award of the Nobel Peace Prize to Malala and to Kailash Satyarthi, the Nobel Peace Prize Committee gave a rare insight into its reasoning behind the award. It made little bones of the fact that it regretted not giving the award to Gandhi, and that the award to Malala and Kailash Satyarthi was in a sense an atonement for that grave error [8]. So, Ms Roy also stands on the other side of the fence to the Nobel Peace Prize Committee.

In the eyes of many leading figures, both past and present, Gandhi’s major achievements were two fold – firstly, to show that nonviolence was a viable means of bringing about political change and to show this at a time when violent means (two World Wars) was the norm; secondly, to point to superordinate principles of living and thinking which could usefully help to understand and guide human behaviour.

‘God is Truth’, ‘God is Love’, were the two key principles espoused by Gandhi. Where is Truth and where is Love (Compassion) in the Lancet Lecture that Ms Roy gave? Ms Roy’s compassion for those in lower castes is no doubt genuine and unarguable. The caste system is as degrading as it is illogical. What about Truth? How can one distinguish between Truth and Myth? Ms Roy gave the impression that this is an easy task, but I argue that it is not. There are three fundamental problems and flaws in the broad argument behind Ms Roy’s critique of Gandhi, flaws that lead me to doubt whether her lecture represented the Truth. Firstly, a major problem is that Mahatma Gandhi is dead, while Arundhati Roy is alive.

Ms Roy passionately believes in justice, as witnessed by her campaigns for justice in India. But there is a fundamental injustice in making strident criticisms of a man after he is dead, for the simple reason that he cannot respond to allegations – ‘Dead Men Cannot Talk’. This applies equally to other past figures such as JF Kennedy and Winston Churchill who are often the subject of allegations and innuendos. In the eyes of some people, to be assassinated once while alive is bad enough, without also having a character assassination long after you are dead. Apart from justice, I also argue that such criticisms are fundamentally disrespectful. If I was to criticise Michael Arthur or Richard Horton after they died, their families would quite rightly regard it as disrespectful for me to do so. Secondly, who is Mahatma Gandhi and who is Arundhati Roy? Is Arundhati Roy the combination of sperm and ovum one second after conception? Is Arundhati Roy the little girl in Corpus Christi school in India? Is Arundhati Roy the person on the day she won the Booker Prize? Our biology and our brains change from one day to the next. Arundhati Roy was not even the same person at the start of her UCL lecture as she was at the end of her lecture. Ms Roy tried to make the point that it was the same Gandhi throughout, that he was rigidly and 100% consistent in his views throughout his life. Ideally, one would wish to have gathered Gandhi’s views the day before he was assassinated to be sure that he had not changed his views. The point I am making is that Gandhi was a dynamic figure living in dynamic times, and it is quite likely that snapshots of his utterances, even if completely accurate, were not representative of the ‘true’ Gandhi, and the ‘true Gandhi’ may in fact be evanescent. Thirdly, Ms Roy relies entirely on words and verbal descriptions of events from the past. The Psychology of human memory tells us many things, amongst which the two key messages are that memory can be selective and can distort past reality, and that much of this selectivity and distortion can occur unconsciously, below the level of our awareness [9]. Indeed, we are often fooled by our confidence in how accurate our memories are, and in some cases the more confident we are of a recollection from the past, the more likely it is that we may be fooling ourselves. Memory distortions are so prevalent that they are considered by some to have adaptive value [10-11]. In legal settings, credibility is often given when ‘contemporaneous notes’ were taken of a conversation or event. For verbal utterances, a tape recorder would also be a key source of validity for the record that was kept. We do not know if the written statements alleged by Ms Roy to emanate from Gandhi were not subject to error (perhaps he did not mean ‘sex’, but ‘six’ or ‘sects’, and his secretary got it wrong or the proof reader did not pick it up!). We now have the advantage of modern technology that is more likely to ensure that posterity has a more veridical record of words and events. Such technology was largely absent in the period during which Gandhi is alleged to have made comments that Ms Roy so heavily relies upon.

Towards the end of her lecture, Ms Roy appealed to the audience to ‘apply their minds to false myths’. I respectfully appeal to her to apply compassion, objectivity and science to some of the false myths that may be lurking in her own mind.

Narinder Kapur is a consultant neuropsychologist at Imperial College NHS Trust, London and a Professor of Neuropsychology.
https://twitter.com/narinder_kapur
http://londonmemoryclinic.com/

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of The Gandhi Foundation.

References
1 Roy A. (2014). Lancet Lecture: The half-life of caste: The ill-health of a nation. November 20,
2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nawWZYhUWBA&list=PL794B0AE51832BE14
2 Kapur N. How Gandhi’s words speak volumes to the NHS today. Health Service Journal, April
18, 2013.
3 Kapur, N. (2013). The NHS could learn much from Gandhi’s teaching. BMJ, 346: f2411.
4 Kapur N. Bringing Gandhi to Science and Medicine. In: Mashelkar, R. (Ed). Timeless Inspirator:
Reliving Gandhi. New Delhi: Gandhi National Memorial Society, 2010; pp. 228-237.
5 Kapur N (1997). The Irish Raj: historical and contemporary links between India and Ireland.
Antrim: Greystone Press.
6 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arundhati_Roy
7 http://roundtableindia.co.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=7283:an-openletter-to-ms-arundhati-roy&catid=119&Itemid=132
8 http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Kailash-Satyarthi-was-in-running-for-Nobel-peaceprize-for-over-half-a-decade-Nobel-Institute/articleshow/44774768.cms
9 Schacter, D et al. (2011). Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective. Trends in Cognitive
Sciences, 15: 467-74.
10 Fernandez, J. (2014). What are the benefits of memory distortion? Consciousness and
Cognition, in press.
11 Lillenfeld S, Byron R. (2013). Your brain on trial. Scientific American, 23: 45-53.

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